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Friday, February 15, 2013

Bilingualism and Reconquista

The State of White America-2007: Education: Pseudo-Pedagogy, Real Hatred

Release Date: April 5, 2007

Prepared by and for the National Policy Institute by Nicholas Stix, Project Director

V. Education: Pseudo-Pedagogy, Real Hatred

By Nicholas Stix

 

Part I: The Autum of White America?

Part II: Black School Violence: Where's the National Guard When You Need It?

Part III: The War on White Educators

Part IV: Afrocentrism: The Pedagogy of Genocide

 

 

On March 27 [2006], some 1,000 Hispanic students from El Rancho High School in Pico Rivera, CA, and the Whittier Union High School district committed truancy, marched over to nearby Montebello on their way to demonstrations supporting illegal immigration, and trespassed on Montebello High School property. At the school flagpole, they lowered the Stars and Stripes, inserted a Mexican national flag above it, turned the American flag upside down, and stole the school's California state flag. When most Montebello students did not join the truants/trespassers/thieves, the latter reportedly vandalized the school with bottles.

 

According to a March 29 letter by El Rancho High Acting Superintendent Susanna Smith, "she and El Rancho Board member Lupe Salas and several other administrators accompanied students who had left campus. She said they went with the students 'to promote responsible behavior and maintain student safety.'"[i]

 

In accompanying minors whom they knew were going to commit an illegal act or acts, and doing nothing to stop them or to later aid in their capture, Smith, Salas, and the unnamed school officials were guilty of acting as accomplices (to trespassing and theft), of obstruction of justice, and of one count each of contributing to the delinquency of a minor for every truant/trespasser/thief/vandal. However, neither Susanna Smith nor Lupe Salas or any of the unnamed administrators cited by Smith has, to my knowledge, been arrested, fired, or reprimanded. In fact, Lupe Salas currently serves as president of the El Rancho Unified School District Board of Education.[ii]

 

Some critics contend that far from merely being accomplices, Susanna Smith, Lupe Salas, and company "incited" the students' crimes.

 

Between late March and early May, school administrators across the country, white non-Hispanic and Hispanic alike, supported tens of thousands  of Hispanic students – many of them illegal immigrants or the American-born "anchor babies" of illegal immigrants – who committed truancy by leaving classes for demonstrations in support of illegal immigration and/or held such demonstrations at school during class time, and who brought Mexican flags to school, and taunted loyal American students. In Los Angeles, many school officials went so far as to provide school buses to ferry the truants to and from demonstrations. Many of the aforementioned school officials then stepped in when patriotic white American students responded by bringing American flags to school, and banned all flags.[iii]

 

At the pro-illegal immigration demonstrations, Hispanic students waved Mexican flags, affirmed their loyalty to a foreign power, called for the revanchist, "reconquista" (reconquest) agenda of violent, mestizo supremacist groups such as La Raza ("the race") and MEChA ("Movimiento Estudiantíl Chicano de Aztlán" – Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan"), and for the expulsion of white Americans from their own country.

 

In Mira Loma, CA, Jurupa Valley High School student Joshua Denhalter is suing school officials in federal court, charging that they supported Hispanic students' illegal walkout in support of illegal immigration during class time, while forbidding him from holding a counter-protesting against illegal immigration during lunch break.[iv]

 

"Aztlán" is a mythical, mestizo land comprising approximately forty percent of the contiguous 48 American states, from Texas to Washington. The aforementioned irredentist groups seek to split off this area from America, and join it to Mexico. MEChA's slogan is, "Por La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada" – "Everything for the Race - Nothing outside the Race." Mainstream media journalists have purposely misrepresented "la raza," by translating it as "the people," instead of "the race."

 

VDARE columnist Allan Wall has written of MEChA,

"In fact, both the outlook and rhetoric of [MEChA and] the White Aryan Resistance are similar. The White Aryan Resistance declares that 'We do not recognize a border between White nations' while MEChA declares 'We do not recognize capricious frontiers on the bronze continent.' Same rhetoric--only the race is different. Another difference is the fact that while the White Aryan Resistance is deservedly shunned, MEChA is welcomed on tax-supported universities and high schools throughout the Southwest and beyond."[v]

As Wall suggested, MEChA has used the tax base, from predominantly white taxpayers, and the public schools and public higher education to develop its base of power.

The Mexican students would turn the American legal order on its head. They believe in a nation of men, not laws. 

Due to both legal and illegal immigration, and the much higher Hispanic birth rate, Hispanics are the fastest-growing group of students in American public schools. The Hispanic students have lower IQs than white American students, and are hostile towards academics. Hispanic 12th graders typically lag over three years behind white American 12th graders. As Ed Rubenstein has reported, these students tend to be linguistically isolated, so that even under ideal circumstances they have a harder time learning English and assimilating. And at 65.7 percent, Hispanics also have by far the lowest status completion rate of any racial or ethnic group in the U.S.

The status completion rate is the percentage of 18-24 year olds (excluding 18-year-olds who are still enrolled in high school) who completed high school. Asians/Pacific Islanders have the highest rate, at 96.1 percent, followed by non-Hispanic whites, at 91.0 percent, with non-Hispanic blacks coming in at 85.6 percent.[vi]

Three young Hispanic types have in recent years come to the fore: 1. A person who does not speak, read or write English or Spanish fluently, is not academically inclined, and who is a member of one of the ultraviolent Hispanic street gangs who increasingly control schools and neighborhoods with large Hispanic populations; 2. A person who does not speak, read or write English or Spanish fluently, is not academically inclined, and who drops out of school, but who has a strong work ethic and supports his family at low-paying, low-skilled jobs (some members of this type may end up in the first group); and 3. A person who does not speak, read or write English or Spanish fluently, and is not academically inclined, yet who indignantly demands the rewards that come from academic accomplishments.

Journalist Heather Mac Donald has written extensively on the gang culture that dominates many schools with large Hispanic populations. Little learning is accomplished in such schools, whose atmospheres are characterized by constant disruptions, fights, and intimidation.[vii]

"Hispanic youths, whether recent arrivals or birthright American citizens, are developing an underclass culture. (By "Hispanic" here, I mean the population originating in Latin America—above all, in Mexico—as distinct from America's much smaller Puerto Rican and Dominican communities of Caribbean descent, which have themselves long shown elevated crime and welfare rates.) Hispanic school dropout rates and teen birthrates are now the highest in the nation. Gang crime is exploding nationally—rising 50 percent from 1999 to 2002—driven by the march of Hispanic immigration east and north across the country. Most worrisome, underclass indicators like crime and single parenthood do not improve over successive generations of Hispanics—they worsen."[viii]

The second type is a quiet sort, and thus not likely to arouse much interest or sympathy of journalists. Even so, this type is dragging down the nation's skill and intellectual levels, and contributing to its rising illegitimacy and poverty levels. And many members of this group are vulnerable to the overtures of groups one and three, respectively.

Group three is embodied by Liliana Valenzuela. Valenzuela, the 18-year-old mother of a three-year-old child, was a high school senior in the 2005-2006 academic year. She has sued the state of California to receive her high school diploma – in the case Valenzuela v. California – even though along with 42,000-47,000 other California high school seniors, she failed the California High School Exit Exam (CHSEE), a diploma requirement which was enforced for the first time in 2006. Valenzuela insists that she has earned the diploma, and demands it. After Alameda County Superior Court Judge Robert Freedman ruled in Valenzuela's favor in May,

"'I feel very happy,' she said later in Spanish. 'Now I'll be able to have my diploma and fulfill my desire to become a nurse.'"[ix]

Fortunately, later that month the California Supreme Court overruled Judge Freedman, and reinstated the exam.[x]

The CHSEE requires only tenth-grade English and eighth-grade math and algebra skills. Valenzuela was an "honor student," and maintained a 3.84 grade point average at Richmond High in the eponymous city, considered the most violent in the state. [xi] That someone who doesn't know English and cannot pass an eighth-to-tenth-grade-level test was an honor roll student, tells one everything one needs to know about academic standards at Richmond High, and why the CHSEE is necessary.

Liliana Valenzuela and her supporters have contempt for the citizens of California, who through the state imposed the graduation examination she failed; contempt for the laws and language of her adopted country; and contempt for the patients whose lives would ultimately be put in her hands were she permitted to go on to college and be issued a nursing license.

The reason for examinations such as the CHSEE, is to counteract the corruption of so many schools in which students' grades mean nothing, and are awarded based simply on one's ethnicity or race.

With the racial politicization of a California high school degree, illiterate Hispanics will get to cut to the front of the line for college admissions and jobs, ahead of competent, literate white Americans, whose public high school diplomas will get them nothing.

Valenzuela and the other Hispanics demanding degrees they have not earned have an entitlement mentality, whereby merely attending school guarantees one a diploma, which in turn guarantees one admission to a college or university which guarantees one a college degree which entails a life-long guarantee of a well-paying job. Concepts like ability, merit, and experience are foreign to their vocabulary. They plan on intimidating and suing each educational and professional institution in turn, so that incompetent, illiterate Hispanics are given preference over competent, literate white Americans, and are protected no matter how much havoc they wreak. Any criticisms of their shortcomings will simply be denounced as "racism."

In other words, Hispanics have simply recreated the civil rights/entitlement/race-baiting universe of blacks.

But if they prevail, people will die. In Liliana Valenzuela's case, the victims will be her patients

In Valenzuela v. California, the plaintiffs' attorney, Arturo Gonzalez, argued that his clients had failed the California High School Exit Exam because "many students have not had the opportunity to learn the material on the exit exam because they went to substandard schools with unqualified teachers, insufficient textbooks and squalid conditions."[xii] (The foregoing is the standard talking point trotted out by minority advocates, even when minority-dominated schools are funded at two-to-three times the level of white-and-Asian-dominated public schools.) California Deputy Attorney General Douglas Press countered that Gonzalez's charges were not true, and that the problem was the plaintiffs' failure to learn English.

I would say, the problem was their refusal to learn English.

The conditions that permitted the rise of the Liliana Valenzuelas to prominence were the 1965 Immigration Act; the 1968 Bilingual Education Act; feckless leaders at the federal, state, and local level, who have refused to enforce America's immigration laws, and who in many municipalities known as "sanctuary cities" and states[xiii] (states include California, Maine, and Oregon; cities include Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York City, Austin, TX, Anchorage, Baltimore, Durham, NC, and Madison, WI), which force civil servants to violate federal law; and the U.S. Supreme Court's 1982 decision in Plyler v. Doe.[xiv]

The 1965 Immigration Act discriminated against legal European immigrants, and on behalf of legal immigrants from the Third World. The 1968 Bilingual Education Act, under the pretext of better helping Hispanic students to learn English (even though all available evidence argued otherwise) created the bilingual education bureaucracy and anti-pedagogy. The fecklessness of America's leaders permitted tens of millions of illegal immigrants to invade the country over the past forty years, at the expense of American citizens. And in Plyler v. Doe, the one-vote majority decision (5-4) led by Justice William Brennan, did violence to the 14th Amendment, projecting onto it a notion of American citizenship extended to every minor in the world, found nowhere in the Bill of Rights. As Howard Sutherland has argued, Brennan

 

"… abandoned altogether the idea that legal admission to the United States, or even American citizenship, should mean anything at all— in favor of a compulsory compassion for the illegal aliens he favors at the expense of the Americans he clearly does not…

 

"Without using the phrase, the Supreme Court here declared the U.S. a 'universal nation,' one with no borders–in effect, no nation at all. The only requirement for full participation in American life is to get here—somehow, anyhow."[xv]

 

 

"Bilingualism"

 

Years before most Americans ever heard of the "Reconquista," they heard of "bilingual education."

 

The first thing one must understand is that "bilingualism" is not about knowing or learning two languages. Rather, it is a code word for "Hispanic." "Monolingual," meanwhile, is a code word for "white American."

 

Thus, the only language one may know may be Spanish – or one may not be literate in any language, including Spanish – and yet be counted by Hispanic nationalists as "bilingual." Conversely, one may be multilingual, and even fluent in Spanish, and yet be counted by Hispanic nationalists as "monolingual." Thus it is that educational researcher, Dr. Sandra Stotsky quotes from a textbook in which a Hispanic boy disparages a white peer as a "monolingual lout."[xvi]

 

Although California voters passed Proposition 227 ("English for the Children") in 1998, which largely abolished so-called bilingual education in that state, and Arizona followed with Proposition 203 two years later, which transferred two-thirds of its foreign language education students into structured English immersion classes, in the rest of the country, this counter-pedagogy is as influential as ever. Indeed, while voters in California and Arizona were fighting to abolish or limit "bilingual education," radical multiculturalists within the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) were fighting to expand it.[xvii] Today, foreign-language education is imposed on immigrant children and even on American-born children of immigrants, in over 100 different languages. However, since the vast majority of students in foreign-language classes are being taught in Spanish, I will reserve my remarks for this group.

 

Bilingual education (BE) is the greatest method ever invented to arrest language acquisition. No research has ever shown it to be superior or even close in efficacy to the traditional language pedagogy of structured immersion. Everything about this anti-pedagogy is Orwellian. First, its name. Pupils in "bilingual" education are usually not taught in two languages, but in one foreign language. Thus, while BE advocates call BE students "English Language Learners," the one thing these children are not learning is English.

 

The anti-English group the Washington-based Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL), claims that BE students begin learning 10 percent in English the first year (and 90 percent Spanish), and then gradually increase their English input until it takes up 50 percent of class time. BE advocates more typically claim that students begin learning 10-20 percent of the time in English, eventually spending 100 percent of class time working in English. In fact, no matter how many years students spend in "bilingual" education classes, they typically spend 80-100 percent of class time being taught in Spanish.[xviii]

 

The term "bilingual teachers" is also dishonest. In New York City, Hispanic immigrant mothers – both those speaking broken English, and those who were fluent – have complained to me that the "bilingual ed" teachers typically do not know English.

 

Even the Spanish fluency and competency in teaching Spanish of the Hispanic teachers who are hired as bilingual educators, at higher pay than "monolingual" educators, are dubious.

 

In a 1995 affidavit, Edwin Selzer, a then recently retired Brooklyn assistant principal from Brooklyn's Eastern District High School, one of New York City's largest and most dysfunctional schools (which has since been broken up into four smaller schools) wrote that "even the Spanish skills of students in bilingual programs were poor – and many students graduating from Eastern District High School were illiterate in both English and Spanish."[xix]

 

Selzer also attested, "I attempted many times to withdraw students from the bilingual education program when I thought that they no longer needed to be in all-Spanish classes [My emphasis – N.S.] …. Students who remained in the bilingual education program were not being prepared to get jobs or to function in English-speaking society.

 

"I was never once successful at withdrawing a student from a bilingual education program. In my experience, once a child was in a bilingual education program, he remained in such program and was never mainstreamed into regular English-speaking classes. Whenever I attempted to withdraw a child from the bilingual education program, the teachers and other school officials refused to do so…."[xx]

 

Selzer observed that many of the students in question "developed schoolyard English and could converse in the vernacular," but "because they never received English instruction, they developed no grammar or written skills."

 

"The bilingual education program at Eastern District High School never professed to have as a goal the mainstreaming of children into

English-language classes."[xxi]

 

During the mid-1990s, the New York City Board of Education (since renamed the Education Department) conducted a study on the efficacy of bilingual education vs. that of structured immersion, in term so the exit rates into normal classes for "LEP" (limited English proficiency) students. The study showed that between 1990 and 1994, for those who entered school in kindergarten, 79.3 percent of students who received ESL-only instruction exited to normal classes after three years, vs. only 51.5 percent of those who received "bilingual" classes. ESL thus had a 54.0 percent higher success rate for that cohort.

 

For students who entered in the second grade, students who received ESL-only instruction had a 205.4 percent higher success rate (67.5 vs. 22.1 percent) than students who received "bilingual" classes in exiting LEP programs after three years.

 

Finally, among students who entered school in the sixth grade, students who received ESL-only instruction had a 373.9 percent higher success rate (32.7 to 6.9 percent) than students who received "bilingual" classes in exiting LEP programs after three years.[xxii]

 

Thereafter, New York City officials stopped comparing ESL and BE success rates, respectively.

 

Not only are illiterate (really non-lingual) immigrants routinely issued high school diplomas by New York City high schools, they are also admitted to attend college at campuses of the City University of New York, once America's finest urban system of higher education. At different times over the course of four-and-one-half years, I taught remedial, English as a Second Language (ESL), and "college-level" courses for matriculated college students at two community colleges and two four-year colleges within the CUNY system.

 

The following, complete essay was written in 1995 by a high school graduate who had come from the Dominican Republic some four years earlier, in a "college-level" Phonetics class I taught at CUNY's Bronx Community College.

"I am going to college, to learn a profession for my future, My major is computer science.

"In this moments is difficult, to someone get a good job.

"it is important. you go to school to learn, because you finish major. After that you get a good job, in Important company. they pay you a lot of money, do you could a position in the society and every do you Want. for that I am going to college."

Education fraud is rampant at colleges with heavily Hispanic student bodies. At two colleges where I taught during the 1990s, Hudson County Community College, in Jersey City, NJ, and CUNY's "bilingual" Hostos Community College, social science courses listed in the course catalogue in English were actually being taught in Spanish. Transcripts from the aforementioned schools were thus fraudulent.

A full-time faculty colleague at Hostos, Rose Aruffat, distributed a page from an anonymous essay to all colleagues, which argued that "bilingualism" was a political strategy for redistributing money from "monolinguals" (whites) to "bilinguals" (Hispanics).

 

Full-time instructors Sue Dicker and Mercedes Pujol wrote and privately distributed an unpublished article explicitly opposing the idea that "language minority speakers" (foreign language speakers) should learn the "majority language" (read: the national language). And Dicker was at the time the director of ESL placement and an ESL instructor!

 

At the end of the academic year, each of the section heads for the dozens of ESL classes distributed copies of the final exam in all instructors' department mailboxes, with instructions to give them to all of our students, and "explain" the exam to them.

 

Since the students had been given the exam in advance, the examination and the grades on it were fraudulent. Students apparently paid people to write their exams, or wrote them in advance, brought the pre-written essays to the examination, and copied them into their "blue books." (This practice was not limited to Hostos CC. Richard France wrote that when he taught at the CUNY City College Center for Worker Education, English Composition students showed up for examinations with their essays-for-hire already written into their blue books.[xxiii])

 

When I participated in the group grading session, in which exam booklets were divvied up and graded, each by two readers, the adjunct who led the group was unconcerned by issues of fraud.

 

The exam sheet had two possible questions to interpret the essay; each group had been told to answer one or the other question. One student had evidently paid someone to answer the wrong essay question; our group leader said that the improper essay should nonetheless receive a passing grade.

 

Prof. Sue Dicker told me – without tongue-in-cheek – that 50 percent was a good passing rate for students who had been thus "prepared."

 

In 1997, Hostos sought to graduate (with a two-year associate's degree) students who had not passed the CUNY Writing Assessment Test (WAT), a CUNY community college graduation requirement.

 

Hostos simply violated the CUNY policy (which was also its own official policy), and substituted instead an even more radically dumbed-down exam – which most students still couldn't pass.

 

When the CUNY Board of Trustees caught wind of Hostos' decision to award degrees to students who had not passed the CUNY WAT, it stopped their graduation. The students sued, and won in the first round, but lost on appeal.

 

In the spring of 1997, many Hostos students went on strike against the WAT, claiming that it was discriminatory. Of those who took the WAT, 87.5 percent (91 out of 104) failed.

 

During the summer of 1997, Hostos provided intensive English tutoring. But in the fall, when the tutored students took the WAT — many for the second time — 95 percent (215 out of 226) failed! On May 21, 1997, Ying Chan of the Daily News reported,

 

"'You don't pass that exam whether you know English or not,' said Luz Brand, 34, a full-time student from the Dominican Republic. 'That's the only thing holding me back.

"Brand has failed the test three times; she said she understands English, but doesn't speak or write it well.

"'What we're fighting for is that they don't just count the one test — count the whole semester,' she said."[xxiv]

The students insisted that they had received all As and Bs for their class work. No doubt they had.

Apparently, the school had not been able to rig the WAT. (The exam may have been under CUNY's control.)

 

Since there was no CUNY investigation into practices at Hostos, and no scandal over grade-and test-rigging, there is no reason to believe that the school has been reformed.

 

A study by CUNY authorities of the entire system, published in 1999, showed that Hostos, a two-year school, had a two-year graduation rate of 0.4 percent, meaning that only four out of one thousand students would graduate in the normal two-year time span.[xxv]

 

I once had a long conversation in the Hostos English Department office with a charming coed who was friends with an acquaintance of mine (who was also present) … in Spanish. The young woman, who was in her seventh semester at Hostos – at taxpayer expense – could not speak a word of English.

 

My program director, Dr. Frances Singh, once observed that many of Hostos's Hispanic immigrant students were illiterate in Spanish, as well as in English.

 

 



 

[i] "Student protests handled well," Whittier Daily News, 26 April 2006.

 

[ii] El Rancho Unified School District, Pico Rivera, California Board of Education, 15 June 2006.

http://www.erusd.k12.ca.us/agenda/6-15-06agenda.pdf

[iii] Dave Kitchell, "Flagging controversy," Pharos-Tribune, 9 May 2006.

Eric Louie, "Students' displaying of flags fuels Castro Valley confrontation," Contra Costa Times, 10 May 2006.

 

[iv] "Student barred from counter-protesting illegals: Files suit noting school ignored truancy of open-borders demonstrators," World Net Daily, 2 June 2006.

 

[v] Allan Wall, "MEChA, Villaraigosa And The June 5 LA Mayoral Election," VDARE, 1 June 2001. http://www.vdare.com/awall/la_mayor.htm

 

[vi] "Dropout Rates in the United States: 2001," National Center for Education Statistics, October 2001, Table A. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/dropout2001/tab_fig.asp

 

[vii] Heather Mac Donald, "The Immigrant Gang Plague," City Journal, Summer 2004.

 

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Nanette Asimov and Bob Egelko, "Judge blocks exit exam for state's high schools: Students who failed may now graduate; educators hope to reverse ruling on appeal," San Francisco Chronicle, 13 May 2006.

[x] David Kravets, "Supreme Court reinstates exit exam for Class of 2006," San Francisco Chronicle, 24 May 2006.

[xi] Ibid.

[xii] Nanette Asimov and Bob Egelko, "Exit exam in California high schools overturned: Ruling would allow students who failed test to graduate, but educators say they'll appeal," San Francisco Chronicle 13 May 2006.

[xiii] James Walsh, "Sanctuary Cities and States -- Undermining the American Republic," The Social Contract, Spring 2005.

[xiv] U.S. SUPREME COURT, PLYLER v. DOE, 457 U.S. 202 (1982), 457 U.S. 202. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/Plyler/

[xv] Howard Sutherland, "Plyler vs. Doe: The Solution," VDARE, 13 February 2003. http://vdare.com/sutherland/the_solution.htm

[xvi] Sandra Stotsky, Losing Our Language: How Multicultural Classroom Instruction Is Undermining Our Children's Ability to Read, Write, and Reason (New York: The Free Press, 1999), 103-104.

 

[xvii] Jim Littlejohn, "FEDERAL CONTROL OUT OF CONTROL: The Office for Civil Rights' Hidden Policies on Bilingual Education," Center for Equal Opportunity, November 1998. http://www.englishfirst.org/be/ceoocr.htm

[xviii] In 2000, when I asked U.S. Department of Education spokeswoman Melinda Ulloa for research showing the efficacy of bilingual instruction, she referred me to the Center for Applied Linguistics. While aggressively supporting BE, CAL has never provided any proof that it works.

Nicholas Stix, "Washington's Nod to Bilingual-Ed Will Handicap More Hispanic Pupils," Insight on the News, 12 June 2000.

[xix] Edwin Selzer, "Affidavit of 17 November 1995, in the Matter of the Application of the Bushwick Parents Organization, Petitioner, Against Richard P. Mills, Commissioner of Education of the State of New York, Respondent, for a Judgment Pursuant to CPLR Article 78," in Jorge Amselle, ed., Linda Chavez, introd., The Failure of Bilingual Education (Washington DC: Center for Equal Opportunity, 1996), 106.

 

[xx] Ibid., 105.

 

[xxi] Ibid., 106.

 

[xxii] "Three-Year Exit Rates for LEP Students by Program," from New York City Board of Education, Educational Progress of Students in Bilingual and ESL Programs: A Longitudinal Study, 1990-1994," Ibid., 121.

 

[xxiii] Richard France, "A glimpse of CUNY'S folly," Daily News, 15 July 1999.

 

Nicholas Stix, "The Great Grade Inflation Non-Debate Part V: Smoking Guns," Toogood Reports, 26 June 2001. http://www.geocities.com/nstix/current.html

 

[xxiv] Ibid.

 

Ying Chan, Daily News, 21 May 1997.

 

[xxv] The City University of New York: An Institution Adrift, The Mayor's Advisory Task Force on the City of New York, 7 June 1999.

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